Sunday, 12 August 2007

The African Movement of Working Children and Youth

The African Movement of Working Children and Youth

The AMWCY was set up in 1994. As of March 2007, the African Movement of Working Children and Youth had 80 associations, in as many as 64 towns of 20 African countries. It is made up of about 728 grassroots groups including more than 37,000 active members. Members include housemaids, girls who are vendors in the market, independent working children and youth in streets and markets, as well as female & male apprentices. 70% of members are below 18, and 53% of members are girls. More facts (in French) including all contact details of the associations can be found in the latest annual bulletin of the movement: "WCY face the challenge, volume 7".

The Working Children and Youth began by organising themselves in their working and living places. They set up associations in their own towns in order to strengthen their solidarity and also gain respect from authorities, as well as from communities. From 1996 onward, the AMWCY noted that the promotion of their rights should be fulfilled through concretisation.

Movement of Working Children and Youth organisational set up
Grassroots groups from the same town get together in Associations of WCYs (AWCY), in the same area. Several AWCY are often created in the same country. They form themselves into a National Association or into a National Coordination of AWCY.

During the African meetings of the AMWCY (every 2 years), these Associations or Coordinations elect a female or male delegate (below 18 years) who will represent them at the Regional Commission of the AMWCY which meets once a year.

The AMWCY has developed clear criteria to become a member of the movement (such as being active for at least one year, providing an annual report, and having an action plan). At present 20 associations are being considered to become members.

Activities of the Movement of Working Children and Youth
  • Technical assistance
  • Promotion of the rights
  • Lobbying
  • Fight against child trafficking
  • Income Generating Activities (IGAs)
  • Technical assistancePromotion of their rights
The WCY articuled 12 rights which they consider to be the backbone for all WCY in 64 African towns. They match children’s rights, mentioned in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and in the African Charter on Human Rights and Children’s Welfare, but they are very specific towards the situation of working children such as the right to remain in the village.
Promotion of these rights can be voiced through “information” and “implementation” activities. Information about the 12 rights is dispatched to the WCYs themselves, so they can be aware of them in order to be able to defend and promote those rights by themselves. This information also gets to the public through direct contacts, or via the media.

ENDA Jeunesse Action International
The Jeunesse Action team from ENDA Tiers Monde supports children living in difficult conditions. Its objectives are to strengthen children's organisation on the local, national and regional levels. They facilitate exchange, training and communication between organisations and supporting institutions that assist children living in difficult conditions in more than 60 towns in 20 African countries. The International Office in Dakar, coordinates the regional activities of the Calao Programme. It includes three working groups which are coordinated by a Committee made up of three persons in charge and of a regional coordinator.

WCY face the challenge is an annual news bulletin of the African Movement of Working Children and Youth published by Enda Tiers Monde, Jeunesse Action in Dakar. The editorial committee is made up of WCYs with the assistance form the Dakar Jeunesse Action team. In this bulletin, we find articles, interviews, impressions, portraits, poems, games, etc. produced by the WCYs and their supporting structures from Africa and Latin America. It is aimed at the general public, authorities, decision-makers informing them about the life, problems and daily fight WCYs go through.

“Calao Express” is a monthly electronic (through Email) news bulletin published by Enda Tiers Monde, Jeunesse Action in Dakar, which was first released in February 2005. At a click, one can get lots of information on WCYs activities, as well as their supporting institutions and NGOs and other organisations in Africa and worldwide in French, English, Portuguese, Italian and German.

Saturday, 11 August 2007

Is participation the new tyranny?

"Participation has therefore become an act of faith in development, something we believe in and rarely question. This act of faith is based on three main tenets: that participation is intrinsically a 'good thing' (especially for the participants); that a focus on 'getting the techniques right' is the principal way of ensuring the success of such approaches; and that considerations of power and politics on the whole should be avoided as divisive and obstructive. "

(Francis Cleaver, 2001, 'Institutions, agency and the limitations of participatory approaches to development', in Cooke, B. and Kothari, U. (eds.), Participation: The New Tyranny, London, Zed Books, 36-55, page 36).

It rings true more and more in relation to children's participation.....

Seen and Heard

Seen and Heard, participation of children and young people in Southeast East Asia and Pacific in events and forums leading to and following up on the United Nations General Assembly Special Session for Children.
Judith Ennew, Yuli Hastadewi. Save the Children Sweden, SEAP region, Bangkok, 2002.

This report presents the results of a research evaluation of the participation of children in the Southeast Asia and the Pacific region in events and processes connected to the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Children in May 2002.

From the report:

The contrast is clear. In 1990, children had read statements written by adults. They were seen - but not heard in anything other than a decorative sense. In 2002, they were not only seen but also 'introduced' their opinions and ideas. Yet it might still be argued that, particularly given the frequent reiteration of the phrase 'giving children a voice', this amounts to little more than giving voice to personal opinion and experience (Lim and Roche, 2000). If children's participation is to be associated with democreacy and group representation - indeed if it is to be anything more than a decorative device - their 'passions, questions, fears, challenges, enthusiasm, optimism, ideas, hopes and dreams' must not only be brought to the adult decision-making table and heard, they should also have an impact on the decisions taken. Nevertheless .... the same argument also applies to much adult representation in international meetings.

A recent article by the same authors which brings out the main points of their research can be found here.

Useful Link: Children, Youth and Environments

Children, Youth and Environments

CYE publishes a peer-reviewed online journal that offers researchers a high-quality, refereed outlet for sharing their work and learning about new studies in the field. Several databases provide supplemental information (see resources listed in the Site Map).

CYE has a global audience and seeks to connect the worlds of research, policy and practice.

The journal publishes papers on a broad range of topics and using different approaches, including quantitative and qualitative empirical research, theoretical, methodological and historical investigations, critical literature reviews, design analyses, post-occupancy evaluations, policy studies, and program assessments. We welcome papers from diverse viewpoints, varied approaches, and different cultures.

Although CYE’s scope is not restricted to a particular disciplinary or professional paradigm, its organizing focus is the physical environment. CYE takes a special interest in papers that focus on children and youth in environments of disadvantage and those with special needs as well as in papers that recognize the capacity of children and young people for meaningful participation in the processes that shape their lives.

One of the latest issues looks at critical perspectives on children's participation.

More about that later.

Useful Link: School councils in Wales

The Welsh Assembly Government has ordered all schools in Wales to have a school council.

Click here to see how this is being implemented.

Useful Link: Funky Dragon - children and young people's involvement in decision making in Wales

From their website:

Funky Dragon - the Children and Young People’s Assembly for Wales - is a peer-led organisation. Its aim is to give 0 – 25 year olds the opportunity to get their voices heard on issues that affect them. The opportunity to participate and be listened to is a fundamental right under the United Nations Convention Rights of the Child. Funky Dragon tries to represent as wide a range as possible and work with decision-makers to achieve change.

Funky Dragon’s main tasks are to make sure that the views of children and young people are heard, particularly by the Welsh Assembly Government, and to support participation in decision-making at national level.

Grand Council

The Grand Council is made up of a total of 100 young people from across Wales, representing the views of a wide range of both voluntary and statutory organisations. Young people across Wales can access the Grand Council through the different ways below.

Local Authority Wide Forums

Statutory Sector – 22 places
Voluntary Sector - 22 places
School Councils - 22 places

Funky Dragon is using the term local authority-wide forum as we recognise that some forums representing the geographical area of a local authority are either independent or are supported by an agency other than the Local Authority such as the Princes Trust or the Children’s Society.

Each Local Authority Wide Forum is offered two places for young people (one for the statutory sector and one for the voluntary sector) on the Grand Council. It is up to each forum to democratically elect their representatives. Representatives are asked to commit to a 2 year term with the Grand Council.

Each Local Authority Wide Forum will be responsible for carrying out its own election process. The only conditions Funky Dragon puts on the process are:

  • The young people involved are aged between 11 and 25
  • The election must be a fair and democratic process
  • Only young people are able to vote
  • One young person should represent the statutory sector e.g. youth clubs, schools, social services etc
  • One young person should represent the voluntary sector e.g. local charities, uniformed group, young farmers etc

Funky Dragon reserves the right to refuse any representative if any of the above conditions are ignored.

Specific Interest Places

Young people have chosen 8 issue areas in which they feel need specific representation in the Grand Council:

  • Gay & Lesbian
  • Disability
  • Young Carers
  • Looked after Young People
  • Black and Minority Ethnic
  • Have been Homeless
  • Have been in Juvenile Justice System
  • Long Term Health Problems (but not necessarily a disability)

Where organisations or systems are in place for particular areas we will be approaching them to see how we can recruit young people that not only represent an organisation, but also that particular area. For example, with the area of looked after young people, we have approached Voices from Care and with black and ethnic minority young people, we have approached the Black Youth Network. Where more than one organisation wishes to put a young person forward, elections will take place at the Annual General Meeting.


In effect these are empty places. The aim is to make sure that the Grand Council is as representative of children and young people in Wales as possible, whilst recognising the fact that 60 young people will never be truly representative of young people across Wales.

Once the Grand Council is in place these will be used to ensure as wide a range of representation as possible. Should the Grand Council feel that they are under represented in anyway then they can actively seek organisations to get young people representing an area/ interest.


The ambassadors are members who have served their two year term on the grand council but who’s experience is considered to be vital. They are invited to stay on, as part of the Grand Council, so that they can pass on the working methods and history of the organisation to newer members.

The Election Process

Within the structure of Funky Dragon there are positions that require an election by the Grand Council. These are for positions on the grand council and the management committee.

For the Grand Council these are:

  • Special Interest Places
  • Co-option Places

For the management committee these are:

  • Trustees under the age of 18
  • Trustees aged 18 or over

If you are interested in joining the grand council you need to go through your local youth forum. Click on youth forums and you will find contact details for your local youth forum worker who will be able to help you.

Funky Dragon also developed standards for participation of children.

European Network of Masters in Children's Rights

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child was agreed in 1989 and has been ratified by all European countries. Despite the commitment and intentions from state parties in Europe and different efforts from civil society, it has become evident that professional human resources dedicated to the development and promotion of children’s rights requires specialised education.

Higher university programmes are needed that promote:
    • Adult attitudes that recognize children as subjects of rights
    • Professional ethics that respect children as competent subjects
    • Children’s rights to resources and participation in decision-making

The European Network of Masters on Children's Rights was founded in September 2004 in Berlin.

The initiative to create ENMCR came from the regional office for Latin America and the Caribbean of Save the Children Sweden (SCS) and individuals in Europe devoted to the promotion and realisation of children's rights.

ENMCR cooperates with the Latin American Network of Masters on Children’s Rights, a network of six universities that offer MA study programmes on childhood studies and children's rights in five Latin American countries.

What is the Network?

The network aims to

  • foster cooperation
  • produce innovative knowledge
  • promote learning between advanced programmes on children’s rights across European Universities.

The network brings together academics, researchers, NGOs, public agencies and students.

Activities of the Network include:

Useful Link: Participation Works

Participation Works online gateway for youth participation. A hub for information, resources, news and networking on the involvement of young people in dialogue, decision making and influence across a wide range of settings.

Participation Works is a collaboration of agencies committed to children and young people's participation. The website has a number of 'rooms' of thematic content. Each room brings together resources on key youth participation themes, links to relevant organisations and an archive of relevant news, events and comments. Check out the resource hub.

UK focused but useful materials for other contexts as well.

Friday, 10 August 2007

Creating an enabling environment

Creating an Enabling Environment - Capacity Building in Children's Participation, Save the Children Sweden, Vietnam, 2000-2004. By Henk van Beers, Vo Phi Chau, Judith Ennew, Pham Quoc Khan, Tran Thap Long, Brian Milne, Trieu Tri Anh Nguyet, and Vu Thi Son. Bangkok, 2006, Save the Children Sweden, Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Office.

Since 2000, Save the Children Sweden in Viet Nam has operated a programme to build the capacity of adults at all levels in facilitating children’s participation with the long-term aim of raising awareness of children’s potential for political participation, not only in Viet Nam but regionally and internationally.
In order to build the basis for planning future programmes to further children’s participation in Viet Nam and elsewhere, Save the Children Sweden commissioned a research assessment which combined three simultaneous research processes using a single research protocol to assess:
• Children-friendly activities in Ho Chi Minh City
• Vietnamese national forums for children
• The impact of the capacity-building programme in Viet Nam, the Southeast Asia and
Pacific region, and globally.
The research process was rights-based, including children’s views and experiences, using appropriate methods and ethical procedures. Building on previous documentation of Save the Children’s promotion of children’s participation, the information in this Report will assist other efforts to ensure that children’s participation becomes both an everyday reality and a high-quality, meaningful experience for the children and adults involved in similar processes worldwide.

Adults First!

For children's fundamental participation rights to be realised, it is adults, not children, who most urgently need to learn. Children's participation rights demand that adults listen to children, understand them and take action based on what children say. Adults often need to encourage children to participate and provide opportunities for them to do it. Thus, children’s rights to participate is, for now at least, heavily dependent upon adults.

More and more organisations working in the field of children’s rights see the need to train their staff in how to facilitate children's participation. Although they recognise that children have the right to be involved in informing, designing, implementing and evaluating programmes that can directly influence their lives, these organisations have found that providing meaningful opportunities for children to do it is a good deal more challenging than perhaps they expected. One important and often overlooked fact is that, for an organisation to involve children properly, everyone from programme managers to finance and personnel officers down to staff in day-to-day contact with children needs to have at least an understanding of the key practical and ethical concerns in facilitating the participation of children.

Adults First! describes a typical organisational training on children's participation run by Save the Children Sweden for a small Cambodian NGO, the Child Rights Foundation. In it, the workshop’s facilitator and Save the Children Sweden’s children's participation adviser for South East Asia and the Pacific, describes and explains the training activities used in the workshop, and outlines several more.

Adults First! is aimed at staff and managers of child-focused organisations hoping to improve their work with children. People thinking of facilitating such trainings should also find it a rich source of ideas and exercises to use with adults and young people.

Beers, Henk van and Caspar Trimmer: Adults First! An organisational training for adults on children's participation. Child Rights Foundation Cambodia, 2004 and Save the Children Sweden, SEAP region, Bangkok, 2006. ISBN 974-94170-9-7

Useful Link: Better Care Network

About BCN

The Better Care Network brings together organizations and individuals concerned about children without adequate family care. It is committed to:

  • Reducing instances of separation and abandonment of children;
  • Reuniting children outside family care with their families, wherever possible and appropriate;
  • Increasing, strengthening and supporting family and community based care options for children who cannot be cared for by their parents;
  • Establishing international and national standards for all forms of care for children without adequate family care and mechanisms for ensuring compliance; and
  • Ensuring that residential institutions are used in a very limited manner and only when appropriate.

The Better Care Network facilitates active information exchange and collaboration on these issues and advocates for technically sound policy and programmatic action on global, regional, and national levels.

The Better Care Network is guided by the UNCRC and the Stockholm Declaration.

Involvement of children is a crucial aspect in the philosophy of Better Care Network which is exemplified in many of the resources and research that is listed on the site.

Especially relevant in this context are articles 12 and 25 of the CRC:

Article 12

1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.

2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

Article 25

States Parties recognize the right of a child who has been placed by the competent authorities for the purposes of care, protection or treatment of his or her physical or mental health, to a periodic review of the treatment provided to the child and all other circumstances relevant to his or her placement.

Information on the site is categorised as follows:

Useful Link: Childrights Information Network

CRIN - Child Rights Information Network - Home

Very informative and resourceful with dedicated sites to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Rightsbased programming, violence against children and Better Care Network.
An informative email newsletter (CRINMAIL) and extensive resource database.

The Child Rights Information Network (CRIN) is a global network that disseminates information about the Convention on the Rights of the Child and child rights amongst non-governmental organisations (NGOs), United Nations agencies, inter-governmental organisation (IGOs), educational institutions, and other child rights experts.

CRIN has a membership of more than 1,700 organisations in over 140 countries. Membership is free. About 85 percent of members are NGOs; and 65 percent are in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In addition to working with member organisations, CRIN services the information needs of 2500 organisations and individuals who have joined their mailing lists.

Information is arranged around the following themes:

Useful link: Communication Initiative

The Communication Initiative -

The Communication Initiative is a space to share, debate and advance effective communication for development progress.

The site has special focus on:




Human Rights


Sustainable Dev


South Asia

Early Childhood


Health Journalists


Democracy & Governance

NRM, Environment


Thursday, 9 August 2007

The Media and Children's Rights

A very useful and reader friendly handbook on children and the media:

The Media and Children's rights

This is a new (2005) edition of a handbook designed to help journalists monitor their government’s performance as signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The Media and Children’s Rights has been produced by the Bristol-based media ethics charity MediaWise on behalf of UNICEF. The revised and expanded, pocket-sized edition, based on the practical experience of working journalists, includes story ideas drawn from issues raised by the UNCRC and checklists to ensure that media professionals acknowledge children rights in their working practices.

It is a useful addition to “Putting children in the right” (Guidelines for Journalists and media professionals) by the International Federation of Journalists.

Children's views on physical and emotional punishment

What children say: Results of comparative research on physical and emotional punishment of children in Southeast, East Asia and Pacific in 2005.

This publication is the result of an unprecedented study by Save the Children Sweden, regional office for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, of children's experiences of physical and emotional punishment, coordinated between teams from eight different countries in Southeast Asia and the Pacific (Cambodia, Fiji, Hong Kong, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Mongolia, The Philippines, and Viet Nam) involving more than 3000 children and over 1000 adults.

A code of ethics was maintained throughout the exercise, and researchers were responsible for making sure that the research did no harm to the children, and that participation was voluntary.

The findings highlight the extraordinary levels and types of violence to which children are subjected in the name of discipline and childrearing - a violence that becomes part of their psychological and social makeup and thus integral to all levels of society and all human relationships.

One clear message from this research is that a contradiction is revealed when what children say is compared with what adults say. Although adults say direct assaults are not an appropriate way to punish children, children report the main form of punishment they receive is direct assaults. Adults do not act according to what they say they believe. This leaves children with a range of problems when they try to assimilate the obvious contradictions in the discipline they receive.

The document can also be downloaded from: or

Hard copies and CD ROM’s can be obtained (free from charge) from:

Save the Children Sweden
Regional Office for Southeast Asia and the Pacific
14th floor, Maneeya Center, South Building
518/5 Ploenchit Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Tel: +662 684 1046/7 Fax: +662 684 1048

Giving children a voice in the media

The Media Code of Conduct is a code developed by the Concerned for Working Children in consultation with children, other organisations working with children’s issues and media persons, on how the media should protect and promote the rights of children in the design, production and distribution of media.

This publication explores issues related to:

  • Children as ‘producers’ of Media

Themes include Children as creators of media in society; Creating spaces for children’s expression and opinions of realities around them

  • Children as ‘users’ of Media

Themes include Children’s Access to Media; Right to information; Children's Rights Programming of content, Right to protection from harmful content

  • Children as ‘subjects’ of Media

Themes include Children as subjects rather than objects of the media; Right to protection from misrepresentation and stereotyping; Right to privacy, confidentiality and dignity

The authors hope this will become an affirmative protocol - a useful self-regulatory tool for all those who respect Children's Rights.

See for more details the article by Kavita Ratna at:

Copies of the Media Code to Realise Children’s Rights can be obtained by writing to

Kavita Ratna

The Concerned for Working Children (CWC)
303/2, L.B. Shastri Nagar,
Vimanapura Post,
Bangalore - 560 017
# 91 - 80 - 25234611/25234270

Video as a means to freedom of expression

It is really worthwhile to visit because it provides opportunities for young people to present their ideas and views on issues of their concern and interest through one minute videos. Many of these videos are on the website – and many are really good. For more information see below and their website.

From the website:

What are one minute videos?
They are sixty-second videos made by young people (between the ages of 12 and 20) from all over the world. Time may be limited in a oneminutesjr video (this challenges the youngsters to form their ideas clearly), but not the freedom to express oneself creatively, which is the basic right of every person.

What is the oneminutesjr network?
It is a non-commercial community without any set political belief or ideology. the network gives young people – especially those who are underprivileged or marginalised – the opportunity to have their voices heard by a broad audience, to share with the world their ideas, dreams, fascinations, anxieties,and viewpoints.

Why does the oneminutsjr network do what it does?

Because we want to:

encourage youth expression, motivating youngsters to articulate their opinions and concerns about their communities, their environments, and about life itself.

create an international platform for the visual communication and exchange of one-minute messages, unhindered by language barriers.

create the opportunity for all young citizens to speak out and make their voices heard by a broad and diverse audience.

provide a space for informal learning, innovation and creativity.

stimulate networking, debate and discussion.

bridge the gap between the media, the arts and young people.

involve marginalised youngsters and give them more of a chance to participate in opinion-making processes.

offer an arena and suitable tools for experiencing diversity – both differences and similarities.

Children's participation's basis in human rights

The United Nations is the source of the international human rights laws currently in use globally, dating from shortly after the Second World War (1939-45). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) makes it clear that freedom to take part in democratic society is a right for all human beings, an idea that is spelt out in more detail in the 1966 United Nations Covenant on Civil and Political Rights . As human beings, children should not be excluded from these rights, but this was not made explicit until the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Introduction to theory and practice of children's participation

A good introduction to theory and practice of children's participation can be found in a new publication, Beyond article 12 – Essential readings in children's participation.

This publication presents a collection of important statements and theories, some legal information and a few practical examples that are particularly thought-provoking.

All the materials included were written by adults for adults in attempts to tackle some of the challenges raised by children’s participation.

The book presents a systematic, non-partisan and holistic view of the topic. By providing basic material on history, theory and practice the editors wish to facilitate an increased understanding of the complex issue of children’s participation as well as to encourage readers to seek further information. The Readings include legal instruments, philosophy, implementation, practice, experience and the broad debate on what children’s participation should or should not be.

Henk van Beers, Antonella Invernizzi and Brian Milne (editors), 2006, Beyond article 12 – Essential readings in children's participation, Bangkok, Black on White Publications, Knowing Children. ISBN 974-93296-1-9

When you want to know more about Knowing Children please visit their website:

From the editorial introduction to Beyond article 12:

“Some of the most notable gaps occur in theory. There is no holistic approach to children’s participation. History, underlying philosophies and the implementation of legal instruments appear to be disconnected. Indeed one of the most disconcerting aspects of the way the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, Reading 3) has been used by some devotees of child participation has been a total resistance to think beyond article 12. Not only are other participation rights infrequently visited by writers and activists but also there is no critique of these oversights. Yet, when the work of pioneers is examined, a broader vision becomes apparent. The ideas of Janusz Korczak (1878/9–1942), the Polish doctor and philosopher who is often credited with beginning modern debates on children’s rights, most certainly harboured a wider range of possibilities. John Dewey’s educational theories (Reading 43) trusted children far more than many contemporary child participation enthusiasts and Ivan Illich’s critique of education (Reading 47) most certainly placed greater trust in the hands and minds of all ages – children included. Perhaps the most illustrative of all is the work of Alexander S. Neill (Reading 48) who foresaw, advocated and practiced intellectual and personal freedoms for children of the kind included much later in the UNCRC. Children give living examples that these principles work.

Knowledge about, and analysis of, participation of children in their everyday lives has received very little attention. Yet a focus on rights violations, implementation of the UNCRC or child-rights planning, programming and practices should not obscure the fact that, outside any attempts by adults to promote respect for article 12, children do indeed participate in their everyday lives, are sometimes listened to and have their decisions and opinions respected. Analyses of these practices are inspiring both for policy and practices. However, these same decisions children take, the processes and (adult) partners involved, are likely to vary considerably from one context to another, depending on cultural practices and socio-economic contexts. Better knowledge in this area would promote practice and policy based on existing resources and strengths.


Each section and subsection of this book is preceded by a brief introduction to the Readings it contains, to explain why we chose these excerpts and to place them in the context of past history and current debates. A final bibliography merges all the references in the excerpts, and is followed by a list of suggested further texts that may be of interest. To help readers wishing to use it as a reference tool, the book is indexed by names of authors as well as topics, and Readings contain internal references to other Readings where relevant.”

(pages viii – ix)